Extremist supporters of deceased former Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Launched a revolt against his successor, Eduard Shevardnadze, which was suppressed in late 1993. Some Gamsakhurdia sympathizers formed a weak legal opposition in Georgia, but others remain opposed to Shevardnadze's rule and seek to overthrow him. Some Gamsakhurdia government officials fled to Russia following Gamsakhurdia's ouster in 1991 and were using Russia as a base of operations to bankroll anti-Shevardnadze activities.
Conducted bombings and kidnappings. Attempted two assassinations against Shevardnadze--in August 1995 and in February 1998. Took UN personnel hostage following the attempt in February 1998 but released the hostages unharmed. Zviadists conducted no violent activity in 1999.
Location/Area of Operation
Georgia, especially Mingrelia, and Russia.
May have received support and training in Chechen terrorist training camps. Chechen mercenaries participated in the assassination attempt against Shevardnadze in February 1998.